Additional Links

Overview over legal questions about AI:

A presentation by Prof. Dr. Hoeren (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster; project partner of GOAL) was created as part of the GOAL project. The presentation shows the legal issues of AI with regard to copyright, advertising law, patent law, data protection law and liability law. Autonomous driving is also discussed in particular. The presentation is available via the following link:


Study on the use of AI in companies

On July 28, 2020, a study instructed by the EU Commission was published. It’s about the use of AI applications in European companies. The study is available via the following link:


Study on applicaton of GDPR:

The Science and Technology Options Assessment (STOA) Committee, a committee of the European Parliament, has published a study that deals with the application of the GDPR in AI applications.The study is available via the following link:


White Paper regarding Artificial Intelligence

On February 19, 2020, the EU Commission published a White Paper “on Artificial Intelligence – A European Concept for Excellence and Trust”. The White Paper is available via the following link:


Amendment of EPO guidelines on patent applications in the field of AI:

Because of an order of the President of the EPO, the guidelines for examining patent applications at the EPO were changed and came into force on November 1, 2019. In addition to many other innovations, there have been some changes, particularly in the area of checking the patentability of applications in regard to artificial intelligence and machine learning. The guidelines are available via the following link:


Liability and AI:

In November 2019, a report by a European Commission expert group on liability for AI and other emerging technologies was published. In the report is explained, for example, that although there are existing regulations in the member states, these must be adapted to the specifics of AI and other new technologies. The report is available via the following link:


EU ethical guidelines for AI:

On April 8, 2019, a high-level expert group on artificial intelligence set up by the European Commission presented ethical guidelines for trustworthy AI. The group of experts has determined several components with the help of which a “trustworthy” AI can be determined. The ethics guidelines and the report are available via the following link:


European Data Protection Board guidelines:

The European Data Protection Board (EDPB) has decided on several guidelines in order to deal with video surveillance (in particular by using AI) under the GDPR. A summary of the 17th meeting of the EDPB is available via the following link:


Legal analysis of the German Data Ethics Committee:

On October 23, 2019, the German Data Ethics Commission, which was set up by the federal government, published its report. The report contains extensive recommendations for dealing with algorithmic systems. Prof. Dr. Judith Simon (University of Hamburg; GOAL project partner) is a member of the data ethics committee. The Commission’s recommendations for action will shape the discourse on the regulation of AI in the near future.The DEK report is available via the following link:


Hambacher Declaration on Artificial Intelligence:

The Hambacher Declaration on Artificial Intelligence took place on April 3, 2019. This resolution of the 97th conference of the independent data protection supervisory authorities of the federal and state governments in the “Hambacher” Castle established seven data protection requirements for AI. The Hambacher Declaration on Artificial Intelligence is available via the following link:


Use of AI by the United Nations:

In the report “United Nations Activities on Artificial Intelligence (AI)” from 2019, UN organizations and UN bodies describe in which areas this AI is used. The comprehensive report is available via the following link:


Economic impact of AI:

Artificial intelligence will have a profound economic impact.An assessment of the economic impact of AI by the European Parliament’s scientific service from July 2019 can be found via the following link:


The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy published a final paper in April 2019. It deals with the legal issues of AI in an economic context. The result paper is available via the following link:


Social impact of AI:

In June 2019, the OECD published a book on the social effects of AI. It deals, for example, with consequences of health, science, agriculture and financial services. The report is available via the following link:


Automated decision-making in the EU:

AlgorihmWatch published, in cooperation with the Bertelsmann Stiftung and with the help of Open Society Foundations, a report in January 2019. The report is about the situation in the EU with regard to automated decision-making. The experts have examined the situation in several EU countries and also depict the areas in which automated decisions are already being made. The report is available via the following link:


Challenges with autonomous AI systems:

Researchers at the Frauenhofer Institute dealt with the challenges of autonomous systems in an article published in August 2019. The article is available via the following link:


Constributions on Big Data – Abida:

The GOAL project is the follow-up project to ABIDA. In the ABIDA project, the topic of big data was comprehensively analyzed from a legal, economic and social perspective. Numerous publications of the project, for example, on voice assistants, diversity of opinion, “social” credit systems and mobile payments solutions can be found via the following link: